The Coalmines Of Kladno
In nineteenth century Bohemia, working the coalmines of the countryside was the only labor available to many men, and the father of Tony Cermak was one of those that toiled in the dark shafts and caverns that covered the Eastern European landscape. Here he waged for a paltry sum, without protection nor insurances against injury, illness or infirmity. The physical hazards of this class were sundry; black lung, tuberculosis and a grave variety of commonplace accidents. If a man could not work, he could not provide for his family, as coal ‘companies’ were unregulated and often illegal operations. To this hard life, generations of Kladno, as well as the Old World, were tied.